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Manage Profile Continue to SI. Manage Profile Log Out close. Basic Info First Name. Current Password Enter your current password. Besides these coaching innovations, several rules changes during the first third of the 20th century had a profound impact on the game, mostly in opening up the passing game.

In , the first roughing-the-passer penalty was implemented. In , the rules on eligible receivers were loosened to allow eligible players to catch the ball anywhere on the field—previously strict rules were in place allowing passes to only certain areas of the field.

Star players that emerged in the early 20th century include Jim Thorpe , Red Grange , and Bronko Nagurski ; these three made the transition to the fledgling NFL and helped turn it into a successful league.

In at Champaign, Illinois Chicago and Illinois played in the first game to have a halftime show featuring a marching band.

On November 25, Kansas and Missouri played the first homecoming football game. The game between West Virginia and Pittsburgh on October 8, , saw the first live radio broadcast of a college football game when Harold W.

Princeton won 21—18 in a hotly contested game which had Princeton dubbed the "Team of Destiny. The following season saw Vanderbilt execute a double pass play to set up the touchdown that beat Sewanee in a meeting of unbeatens for the SIAA championship.

Grantland Rice cited this event as the greatest thrill he ever witnessed in his years of watching sports. First, Vanderbilt; second, Sewanee, a might good second;" and that Aubrey Lanier "came near winning the Vanderbilt game by his brilliant dashes after receiving punts.

Honus Craig then ran in the winning touchdown. The team was the first national champion from the South , led by a powerful backfield.

When Heisman left Tech after , his shift was still employed by protege William Alexander. In , Vanderbilt defeated Carlisle 4 to 0, the result of a Bob Blake field goal.

In Vanderbilt held defending national champion Yale to a scoreless tie. The next season, with many players gone due to World War I, a game was finally scheduled at Forbes Field with Pittsburgh.

In Bo McMillin -led Centre upset defending national champion Harvard 6 to 0 in what is widely considered one of the greatest upsets in college football history.

The next year Vanderbilt fought Michigan to a scoreless tie at the inaugural game at Dudley Field now Vanderbilt Stadium , the first stadium in the South made exclusively for college football.

Michigan coach Fielding Yost and Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin were brothers-in-law, and the latter the protege of the former.

Its result was "a great surprise to the sporting world. This game is commonly referred to as "the game that changed the south.

Georgia Tech, led by Heisman protege William Alexander , gave the dream and wonder team its only loss, and the next year were national and Rose Bowl champions.

As part of his single and double wing formations, Warner was one of the first coaches to effectively utilize the forward pass. Among his other innovations are modern blocking schemes, the three-point stance , and the reverse play.

Knute Rockne rose to prominence in as an end for the University of Notre Dame , then a largely unknown Midwestern Catholic school.

When Army scheduled Notre Dame as a warm-up game, they thought little of the small school. Rockne and quarterback Gus Dorais made innovative use of the forward pass, still at that point a relatively unused weapon, to defeat Army 35—13 and helped establish the school as a national power.

He is credited with being the first major coach to emphasize offense over defense. Rockne is also credited with popularizing and perfecting the forward pass, a seldom used play at the time.

In , his complex shifts led directly to a rule change whereby all offensive players had to stop for a full second before the ball could be snapped.

He led his team to an impressive —12—5 record before his premature death in a plane crash in He was so famous at that point that his funeral was broadcast nationally on radio.

Although before the mids most national powers came from the Northeast or the Midwest , the trend changed when several teams from the South and the West Coast achieved national success.

College football quickly became the most popular spectator sport in the South. Several major modern college football conferences rose to prominence during this time period.

The Southwest Athletic Conference had been founded in As it grew beyond its regional affiliations in the s, college football garnered increased national attention.

Four new bowl games were created: In lieu of an actual national championship, these bowl games, along with the earlier Rose Bowl, provided a way to match up teams from distant regions of the country that did not otherwise play.

Since there was no national championship game, the final version of the AP poll was used to determine who was crowned the National Champion of college football.

The s saw growth in the passing game. In , the rules committee removed two major penalties—a loss of five yards for a second incomplete pass in any series of downs and a loss of possession for an incomplete pass in the end zone—and shrunk the circumference of the ball, making it easier to grip and throw.

During World War II, college football players enlisted in the armed forces , some playing in Europe during the war. As most of these players had eligibility left on their college careers, some of them returned to college at West Point , bringing Army back-to-back national titles in and under coach Red Blaik.

Doc Blanchard known as "Mr. Inside" and Glenn Davis known as "Mr. Outside" both won the Heisman Trophy , in and The s saw the rise of yet more dynasties and power programs.

Oklahoma , under coach Bud Wilkinson , won three national titles , , and all ten Big Eight Conference championships in the decade while building a record game winning streak.

The Michigan State Spartans were known as the "football factory" during the s, where coaches Clarence Munn and Duffy Daugherty led the Spartans to two national titles and two Big Ten titles after joining the Big Ten athletically in Wilkinson and Hayes, along with Robert Neyland of Tennessee, oversaw a revival of the running game in the s.

Passing numbers dropped from an average of Nine out of ten Heisman Trophy winners in the s were runners. Notre Dame, one of the biggest passing teams of the decade, saw a substantial decline in success; the s were the only decade between and when the team did not win at least a share of the national title.

Paul Hornung , Notre Dame quarterback, did, however, win the Heisman in , becoming the only player from a losing team ever to do so.

Following the enormous success of the NFL Championship Game , college football no longer enjoyed the same popularity as the NFL, at least on a national level.

While both games benefited from the advent of television, since the late s, the NFL has become a nationally popular sport while college football has maintained strong regional ties.

As professional football became a national television phenomenon, college football did as well. In the s, Notre Dame, which had a large national following, formed its own network to broadcast its games, but by and large the sport still retained a mostly regional following.

In , the NCAA claimed all television broadcasting rights for the games of its member institutions, and it alone negotiated television rights.

This situation continued until , when several schools brought a suit under the Sherman Antitrust Act ; the Supreme Court ruled against the NCAA and schools are now free to negotiate their own television deals.

ABC Sports began broadcasting a national Game of the Week in , bringing key matchups and rivalries to a national audience for the first time.

New formations and play sets continued to be developed. Emory Bellard , an assistant coach under Darrell Royal at the University of Texas , developed a three-back option style offense known as the wishbone.

The wishbone is a run-heavy offense that depends on the quarterback making last second decisions on when and to whom to hand or pitch the ball to. Though some schools play a run-based version of the spread, its most common use is as a passing offense designed to "spread" the field both horizontally and vertically.

In the rankings of the most victorious programs , Michigan , Texas , and Notre Dame are ranked first, second, and third in total wins.

In , for the highest level of college football, there were only five bowl games Rose, Orange, Sugar, Sun, and Cotton. By , three more had joined that number and in , there were still only eight major college bowl games.

The number grew to eleven in At the birth of cable television and cable sports networks like ESPN , there were fifteen bowls in With more national venues and increased available revenue, the bowls saw an explosive growth throughout the s and s.

In the thirty years from to , seven bowl games were added to the schedule. From to , an additional 20 bowl games were added to the schedule. Yet others have countered that the increased number of games has increased exposure and revenue for a greater number of schools, and see it as a positive development.

With the growth of bowl games, it became difficult to determine a national champion in a fair and equitable manner.

As conferences became contractually bound to certain bowl games a situation known as a tie-in , match-ups that guaranteed a consensus national champion became increasingly rare.

In , seven conferences and independent Notre Dame formed the Bowl Coalition , which attempted to arrange an annual No. The Coalition lasted for three years; however, several scheduling issues prevented much success; tie-ins still took precedence in several cases.

For example, the Big Eight and SEC champions could never meet, since they were contractually bound to different bowl games. The coalition also excluded the Rose Bowl, arguably the most prestigious game in the nation, and two major conferences—the Pac and Big Ten—meaning that it had limited success.

It was agreed that the No. The system still did not include the Big Ten , Pac , or the Rose Bowl , and thus still lacked the legitimacy of a true national championship.

In , a new system was put into place called the Bowl Championship Series. The champions of these six conferences, along with two "at-large" selections, were invited to play in the four bowl games.

Each year, one of the four bowl games served as a national championship game. Also, a complex system of human polls, computer rankings, and strength of schedule calculations was instituted to rank schools.

Based on this ranking system, the No. Traditional tie-ins were maintained for schools and bowls not part of the national championship. For example, in years when not a part of the national championship, the Rose Bowl still hosted the Big Ten and Pac champions.

The system continued to change, as the formula for ranking teams was tweaked from year to year. Starting with the season, a fifth game—simply called the BCS National Championship Game —was added to the schedule, to be played at the site of one of the four BCS bowl games on a rotating basis, one week after the regular bowl game.

This opened up the BCS to two additional at-large teams. The CFP is a four-team tournament whose participants are chosen and seeded by a member selection committee.

The two semifinal winners then advance to the College Football Playoff National Championship , whose host is determined by open bidding several years in advance.

The WAC, after seeing all but two of its football members leave , dropped football after the season. The Big East split into two leagues in ; the schools that did not play FBS football reorganized as a new non-football Big East Conference , while the FBS member schools that remained in the original structure joined with several new members and became the American Athletic Conference.

Although rules for the high school, college, and NFL games are generally consistent, there are several minor differences.

Division I generally consists of the major collegiate athletic powers with larger budgets, more elaborate facilities, and with the exception of a few conferences such as the Pioneer Football League more athletic scholarships.

Division II primarily consists of smaller public and private institutions that offer fewer scholarships than those in Division I.

Division III institutions also field teams, but do not offer any scholarships. Football teams in Division I are further divided into the Bowl Subdivision consisting of the largest programs and the Championship Subdivision.

The Bowl Subdivision has historically not used an organized tournament to determine its champion, and instead teams compete in post-season bowl games.

That changed with the debut of the four-team College Football Playoff at the end of the season. A college that fields a team in the NCAA is not restricted from fielding teams in club or sprint football, and several colleges field two teams, a varsity NCAA squad and a club or sprint squad no schools, as of [update] , field both club and sprint teams at the same time.

Started in the season, four Division I FBS teams are selected at the end of regular season to compete in a playoff for the FBS national championship.

The inaugural champion was Ohio State University. Clemson won the national championship. At the Division I FCS level, the teams participate in a team playoff most recently expanded from 20 teams in to determine the national championship.

Under the current playoff structure, the top eight teams are all seeded, and receive a bye week in the first round. The highest seed receives automatic home field advantage.

Starting in , non-seeded teams can only host a playoff game if both teams involved are unseeded; in such a matchup, the schools must bid for the right to host the game.

Selection for the playoffs is determined by a selection committee, although usually a team must have an record to even be considered.

Losses to an FBS team count against their playoff eligibility, while wins against a Division II opponent do not count towards playoff consideration.

The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics also holds a playoff. Unlike other college football divisions and most other sports—collegiate or professional—the Football Bowl Subdivision , formerly known as Division I-A college football, has historically not employed a playoff system to determine a champion.

Instead, it has a series of postseason "bowl games". The annual National Champion in the Football Bowl Subdivision is then instead traditionally determined by a vote of sports writers and other non-players.

This system has been challenged often, beginning with an NCAA committee proposal in to have a four-team playoff following the bowl games.

The first bowl game was the Rose Bowl , played between Michigan and Stanford ; Michigan won It ended when Stanford requested and Michigan agreed to end it with 8 minutes on the clock.

That game was so lopsided that the game was not played annually until , when the Tournament of Roses decided to reattempt the postseason game.

The term "bowl" originates from the shape of the Rose Bowl stadium in Pasadena, California , which was built in and resembled the Yale Bowl, built in This is where the name came into use, as it became known as the Rose Bowl Game.

Other games came along and used the term "bowl", whether the stadium was shaped like a bowl or not. At the Division I FBS level, teams must earn the right to be bowl eligible by winning at least 6 games during the season teams that play 13 games in a season, which is allowed for Hawaii and any of its home opponents, must win 7 games.

They are then invited to a bowl game based on their conference ranking and the tie-ins that the conference has to each bowl game.

For the season, there were 34 bowl games, so 68 of the Division I FBS teams were invited to play at a bowl.

These games are played from mid-December to early January and most of the later bowl games are typically considered more prestigious.

After the Bowl Championship Series, additional all-star bowl games round out the post-season schedule through the beginning of February.

Partly as a compromise between both bowl game and playoff supporters, the NCAA created the Bowl Championship Series BCS in in order to create a definitive national championship game for college football.

The series included the four most prominent bowl games Rose Bowl, Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, Fiesta Bowl , while the national championship game rotated each year between one of these venues.

This allowed the four other BCS bowls to use their normal selection process to select the teams in their games while the top two teams in the BCS rankings would play in the new National Championship Game.

The BCS selection committee used a complicated, and often controversial, computer system to rank all Division I-FBS teams and the top two teams at the end of the season played for the national championship.

A selection committee of college football experts decides the participating teams. Six major bowl games the Rose , Sugar , Cotton , Orange , Peach , and Fiesta rotate on a three-year cycle as semifinal games, with the winners advancing to the College Football Playoff National Championship.

This arrangement is contractually locked in until the season. College football is a controversial institution within American higher education, where the amount of money involved—what people will pay for the entertainment provided—is a corrupting factor within universities that they are usually ill-equipped to deal with.

There has been serious discussion about making student-athletes university employees to allow them to be paid. Canadian football , which parallels American football, is played by university teams in Canada under the auspices of U Sports.

Unlike in the United States, no junior colleges play football in Canada, and the sanctioning body for junior college athletics in Canada, CCAA , does not sanction the sport.

However, amateur football outside of colleges is played in Canada, such as in the Canadian Junior Football League. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about gridiron football played at a collegiate level in the United States. For other uses, see College football disambiguation.

History of American football and History of Canadian football. No sport is wholesome in which ungenerous or mean acts which easily escape detection contribute to victory.

Bowl game and List of college bowl games. List of college football games played outside the United States.

Retrieved November 19, Retrieved December 18, The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to Professional Football Researchers Association.

Retrieved January 26, Retrieved May 16, Retrieved December 23, The History of Sports. Retrieved May 15, Rutgers Through The Years.

Archived from the original on January 20, Accessed January 29, Football, the American intercollegiate game. Archived from the original on October 18, Retrieved October 22, March 29, — via Google books.

Citing research, Tufts claims football history is on its side". American Football —" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on June 13, The Walter Camp Foundation.

Archived from the original on December 18, Retrieved January 16, Baylor Athletics Baylor University.

Retrieved October 11, The National Collegiate Athletic Association. Ivy League Rugby Conference Football Bowl Subdivision Records.

National Collegiate Athletic Association. Retrieved January 24, Retrieved September 11, Retrieved November 29, Retrieved April 12, Archived from the original on September 12, Retrieved March 24, Bernstein August 22, College Football Data Warehouse.

Archived from the original on February 13, Retrieved April 4, Archived from the original on October 21, Retrieved March 27, — via Newspapers.

A Story of Michigan Football. Harvard University Sports Information Office. Archived from the original on August 27, Retrieved February 18, Archived from the original on January 13, Retrieved May 19, Journal of Sport History, Vol.

Retrieved February 9, Evolvements of Early American Foot Ball: Journal of Sport History. University of Virginia Football Vault. Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College.

Retrieved October 13, Retrieved January 14, Retrieved March 13, — via Newspapers. From Maverick to Mainstream: Cumberland School of Law, — The Oklahoma Football Encyclopedia: Echoes of Oklahoma Sooners Football: The Greatest Stories Ever Told.

Beats Throop By a Score of 22 to 12 at Pasadena". Retrieved May 6, Archived from the original on May 6, The Anatomy of a Game.

Boys Fell to Their Doom in S. Tales from the Oregon Ducks Sideline. College Football Data Warehouse: Retrieved May 30, Archived from the original PDF on August 7, A October — March British Columbia Rugby Union.

Archived from the original on April 15, Retrieved October 20, Archived from the original PDF on College Football Historical Society: Archived from the original PDF on August 8, Archived from the original on April 30, Archived from the original on May 12, Retrieved April 6, Archived from the original on October 19, Football fans enjoy mechanized reproduction of KU-MU game".

Retrieved December 27, University of Pittsburgh Football Media Guide. University of Pittsburgh Sports Information Office. How to Scout Football. Retrieved March 24, — via Newspapers.

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Archived from the original on May 26, Retrieved October 6, American athletes of the century". Retrieved August 23, Archived from the original on November 1, The Dallas Morning News.

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No team results found. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was Sir William Mulock , later Chancellor of the school.

A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A.

Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. Modern Canadian football is widely regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in , when British Army officers played local civilians.

The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in , the first recorded non-university football club in Canada.

Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional " mob football " played in Great Britain. The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses.

Each school played its own variety of football. Princeton University students played a game called "ballown" as early as A Harvard tradition known as "Bloody Monday" began in , which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes.

In , both the town police and the college authorities agreed the Bloody Monday had to go. The Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called "Football Fightum", for whom they conducted funeral rites.

The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called " Old division football ", the rules of which were first published in , though the game dates to at least the s.

All of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities. They remained largely "mob" style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area, often by any means necessary.

Rules were simple, violence and injury were common. Yale , under pressure from the city of New Haven , banned the play of all forms of football in American football historian Parke H.

On November 6, , Rutgers University faced Princeton University then known as the College of New Jersey in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football.

It was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. It is still usually regarded as the first game of college football.

Throwing or carrying the ball was not allowed, but there was plenty of physical contact between players. The first team to reach six goals was declared the winner.

Rutgers won by a score of six to four. Princeton won that game by a score of 8 — 0. Columbia joined the series in , and by several schools were fielding intercollegiate teams, including Yale and Stevens Institute of Technology.

Columbia University was the third school to field a team. The game suffered from disorganization and the players kicked and battled each other as much as the ball.

Later in , Princeton and Rutgers played again with Princeton defeating Rutgers Football came back in , when Columbia played Yale for the first time.

The Yale team was coached and captained by David Schley Schaff, who had learned to play football while attending Rugby school. Schaff himself was injured and unable to the play the game, but Yale won the game nonetheless.

Later in , Stevens Tech became the fifth school to field a team. By , the college students playing football had made significant efforts to standardize their fledgling game.

Teams had been scaled down from 25 players to Old "Football Fightum" had been resurrected at Harvard in , when Harvard resumed playing football.

Harvard, however, preferred to play a rougher version of football called "the Boston Game" in which the kicking of a round ball was the most prominent feature though a player could run with the ball, pass it, or dribble it known as "babying".

The man with the ball could be tackled, although hitting, tripping, "hacking" shin-kicking and other unnecessary roughness was prohibited.

There was no limit to the number of players, but there were typically ten to fifteen per side. A player could carry the ball only when being pursued.

As a result of this, Harvard refused to attend the rules conference organized by Rutgers, Princeton and Columbia at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City on October 20, to agree on a set of rules and regulations that would allow them to play a form of football that was essentially Association football ; and continued to play under its own code.

Jarvis Field was at the time a patch of land at the northern point of the Harvard campus, bordered by Everett and Jarvis Streets to the north and south, and Oxford Street and Massachusetts Avenue to the east and west.

The Harvard students took to the rugby rules and adopted them as their own, [4] [10] [11] The games featured a round ball instead of a rugby-style oblong ball.

Inasmuch as Rugby football had been transplanted to Canada from England, the McGill team played under a set of rules which allowed a player to pick up the ball and run with it whenever he wished.

In the Rugby rules of the time, a try only provided the attempt to kick a free goal from the field. If the kick was missed, the try did not score any points itself.

Harvard quickly took a liking to the rugby game, and its use of the try which, until that time, was not used in American football. The try would later evolve into the score known as the touchdown.

Harvard later challenged its closest rival, Yale, to which the Bulldogs accepted. They decided to play with 15 players on each team.

On November 13, , Yale and Harvard played each other for the first time ever, where Harvard won At the first The Game as the annual contest between Harvard and Yale came to be named the future "father of American football" Walter Camp was among the spectators in attendance.

Spectators from Princeton also carried the game back home, where it quickly became the most popular version of football. On November 23, , representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit House in Springfield, Massachusetts to standardize a new code of rules based on the rugby game first introduced to Harvard by McGill University in Three of the schools—Harvard, Columbia, and Princeton—formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, as a result of the meeting.

Yale initially refused to join this association because of a disagreement over the number of players to be allowed per team relenting in and Rutgers were not invited to the meeting.

The rules that they agreed upon were essentially those of rugby union at the time with the exception that points be awarded for scoring a try , not just the conversion afterwards extra point.

Incidentally, rugby was to make a similar change to its scoring system 10 years later. Walter Camp is widely considered to be the most important figure in the development of American football.

Following the introduction of rugby-style rules to American football, Camp became a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where rules were debated and changed.

Dissatisfied with what seemed to him to be a disorganized mob, he proposed his first rule change at the first meeting he attended in The motion was rejected at that time but passed in The effect was to open up the game and emphasize speed over strength.

Originally, the snap was executed with the foot of the center. Later changes made it possible to snap the ball with the hands, either through the air or by a direct hand-to-hand pass.

Princeton, in particular, used scrimmage play to slow the game, making incremental progress towards the end zone during each down. At the rules meeting, Camp proposed that a team be required to advance the ball a minimum of five yards within three downs.

These down-and-distance rules, combined with the establishment of the line of scrimmage, transformed the game from a variation of rugby football into the distinct sport of American football.

Camp was central to several more significant rule changes that came to define American football. Several times in , Camp tinkered with the scoring rules, finally arriving at four points for a touchdown, two points for kicks after touchdowns , two points for safeties, and five for field goals.

In , game time was set at two halves of 45 minutes each. Also in , two paid officials—a referee and an umpire —were mandated for each game. A year later, the rules were changed to allow tackling below the waist, and in , the officials were given whistles and stopwatches.

Though no longer a player, he remained a fixture at annual rules meetings for most of his life, and he personally selected an annual All-American team every year from through College football expanded greatly during the last two decades of the 19th century.

Several major rivalries date from this time period. November was an active time in the sport. In Baldwin City, Kansas , on November 22, , college football was first played in the state of Kansas.

Baker beat Kansas 22—9. It was the first time organized football played in the state of Tennessee. Rutgers was first to extend the reach of the game.

An intercollegiate game was first played in the state of New York when Rutgers played Columbia on November 2, It was also the first scoreless tie in the history of the fledgling sport.

The game was essentially soccer with man sides, played on a field by feet. Yale wins , Tommy Sherman scoring the first goal and Lew Irwin the other two.

After the first game against Harvard, Tufts took its squad to Bates College in Lewiston, Maine for the first football game played in Maine.

This "twenty" never played Columbia, but did play twice against Princeton. The first of these happened on November 11, , in Philadelphia and was the first intercollegiate game in the state of Pennsylvania.

Brown enters the intercollegiate game in The first game where one team scored over points happened on October 25, , when Yale routed Dartmouth —0.

It was also the first time one team scored over points and the opposing team was shut out. The first intercollegiate game in the state of Vermont happened on November 6, , between Dartmouth and Vermont at Burlington, Vermont.

Dartmouth won 91 to 0. Penn State played its first season in , [29] but had no head coach for their first five years, from — They compiled a 12—8—1 record in these seasons, playing as an independent from — Lafayette and Lehigh were excluded because it was felt they would dominate the Association.

Penn State won the championship with a 4—1—0 record. The Association was dissolved prior to the season. The first nighttime football game was played in Mansfield, Pennsylvania on September 28, , between Mansfield State Normal and Wyoming Seminary and ended at halftime in a 0—0 tie.

Reeves had a crude leather helmet made by a shoemaker in Annapolis and wore it in the game after being warned by his doctor that he risked death if he continued to play football after suffering an earlier kick to the head.

In , the University of Michigan became the first school west of Pennsylvania to establish a college football team. The Chicago Daily Tribune called it "the first rugby-football game to be played west of the Alleghenies.

The first western team to travel east was the Michigan team , which played at Harvard, Yale and Princeton.

Led by coach Fielding H. Yost , Michigan became the first "western" national power. From to , Michigan had a game undefeated streak that included a trip to play in the first college football bowl game , which later became the Rose Bowl Game.

During this streak, Michigan scored 2, points while allowing only Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Minnesota on September 30, , when Hamline was convinced to play Minnesota.

Minnesota won 2 to 0. November 30, , saw Chicago defeat Michigan 2 to 0. Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Virginia and the south on November 2, , in Lexington between Washington and Lee and VMI.

Washington and Lee won 4—2. Due to scantness of records of the prior matches some will claim Virginia v.

Pantops Academy November 13, , as the first game in Virginia. On November 13, the Virginia Cavaliers and Pantops Academy fought to a scoreless tie in the first organized football game in the state of Virginia.

But no record has been found of the score of this contest. Washington and Lee also claims a 4 to 2 win over VMI in On December 14, , Wofford defeated Furman 5 to 1 in the first intercollegiate game in the state of South Carolina.

The game featured no uniforms, no positions, and the rules were formulated before the game. The beginnings of the contemporary Southeastern Conference and Atlantic Coast Conference start in It is thought that the first forward pass in football occurred on October 26, , in a game between Georgia and North Carolina when, out of desperation, the ball was thrown by the North Carolina back Joel Whitaker instead of punted and George Stephens caught the ball.

It was the first game in the south decided by a field goal. Warner picked up the trick and later used it at Cornell against Penn State in The Sewanee Tigers are one of the all-time great teams of the early sport.

The team went 12—0, outscoring opponents to It is recalled memorably with the phrase " Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Florida in The first intercollegiate game between official varsity teams was played on November 22, Stetson beat Florida Agricultural College at Lake City, one of the four forerunners of the University of Florida, , in a game played as part of the Jacksonville Fair.

On September 27, , Georgetown beat Navy 4 to 0. It is claimed by Georgetown authorities as the game with the first ever "roving center" or linebacker when Percy Given stood up, in contrast to the usual tale of Germany Schulz.

The game ended in an 11—11 tie causing many teams to claim the title. Heisman pressed hardest for Cumberland to get the claim of champion.

It was his last game as Clemson head coach. The undefeated Vanderbilt team scored an average of The Terrors were a mix of Methodist college students and high schoolers.

By next season, Oklahoma coach John A. Harts had left to prospect for gold in the Arctic. The high school won 24 to 0.

The University of Southern California first fielded an American football team in Frank Suffel and Henry H. Goddard were playing coaches for the first team which was put together by quarterback Arthur Carroll; who in turn volunteered to make the pants for the team and later became a tailor.

Pomona College was invited to enter, but declined to do so. An invitation was also extended to Los Angeles High School. In , the first Stanford football team was hastily organized and played a four-game season beginning in January with no official head coach.

The team also played exhibition games against two Los Angeles area teams that Stanford does not include in official results.

During that game, a large group of men and boys, who were observing from the roof of the nearby S. The University of Oregon began playing American football in and played its first game on March 24, , defeating Albany College 44—3 under head coach Cal Young.

Church took over the coaching position in the fall for the rest of the season. Oregon finished the season with two additional losses and a tie, but went undefeated the following season, winning all four of its games under head coach Percy Benson.

American football at Oregon State University started in shortly after athletics were initially authorized at the college.

Athletics were banned at the school in May , but when the strict school president, Benjamin Arnold, died, President John Bloss reversed the ban.

The next year in , Yost was hired by Charles A. Baird as the head football coach for the Michigan Wolverines football team.

The season marked the first meeting between Stanford and USC. In , citing concerns about the violence in American Football, universities on the West Coast , led by California and Stanford , replaced the sport with rugby union.

The annual Big Game between Stanford and California continued as rugby, with the winner invited by the British Columbia Rugby Union to a tournament in Vancouver over the Christmas holidays, with the winner of that tournament receiving the Cooper Keith Trophy.

During 12 seasons of playing rugby union, Stanford was remarkably successful: However, after a few years, the school began to feel the isolation of its newly adopted sport, which was not spreading as many had hoped.

Students and alumni began to clamor for a return to American football to allow wider intercollegiate competition. As reasons for the change, the school cited rule change back to American football, the overwhelming desire of students and supporters to play American football, interest in playing other East Coast and Midwest schools, and a patriotic desire to play an "American" game.

Parker decreed that American football was the appropriate athletic activity to train soldiers and rugby union was dropped. The University of Colorado began playing American football in Colorado found much success in its early years, winning eight Colorado Football Association Championships —97, — It appears here in its original form:.

Messrs Carney, Whittaker, Layton and others, who at that time constituted a majority of the male population of the University, called a meeting of the campus boys in the old medical building.

Nixon was elected president and Holden secretary of the association. It was voted that the officers constitute a committee to provide uniform suits in which to play what was called "association football".

Suits of flannel were ultimately procured and paid for assessments on the members of the association and generous contributions from members of the faculty.

The Athletic Association should now invigorate its base-ball and place it at par with its football team; and it certainly has the material with which to do it.

The U of C should henceforth lead the state and possibly the west in athletic sports. The style of football playing has altered considerably; by the old rules, all men in front of the runner with the ball, were offside, consequently we could not send backs through and break the line ahead of the ball as is done at present.

The notorious V was then in vogue, which gave a heavy team too much advantage. The mass plays being now barred, skill on the football field is more in demand than mere weight and strength.

In , the Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference was founded, featuring four members: College football increased in popularity through the remainder of the 19th and early 20th century.

It also became increasingly violent. Between and , college athletes died as a direct result of injuries sustained on the football field. These deaths could be attributed to the mass formations and gang tackling that characterized the sport in its early years.

The Harvard—Yale game, known as the "Hampden Park Blood Bath", resulted in crippling injuries for four players; the contest was suspended until The annual Army—Navy game was suspended from to for similar reasons.

The resultant collisions often led to serious injuries and sometimes even death. The situation came to a head in when there were 19 fatalities nationwide.

President Theodore Roosevelt reportedly threatened to shut down the game if drastic changes were not made. What is absolutely certain is that on October 9, , Roosevelt held a meeting of football representatives from Harvard , Yale , and Princeton.

Though he lectured on eliminating and reducing injuries, he never threatened to ban football. He also lacked the authority to abolish football and was, in fact, actually a fan of the sport and wanted to preserve it.

Outland held an experimental game in Wichita, Kansas that reduced the number of scrimmage plays to earn a first down from four to three in an attempt to reduce injuries.

Because the college officials could not agree upon a change in rules, it was decided over the course of several subsequent meetings that an external governing body should be responsible.

Finally, on December 28, , 62 schools met in New York City to discuss rule changes to make the game safer. As a result of this meeting, the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States was formed in The IAAUS was the original rule making body of college football, but would go on to sponsor championships in other sports.

The rules committee considered widening the playing field to "open up" the game, but Harvard Stadium the first large permanent football stadium had recently been built at great expense; it would be rendered useless by a wider field.

The rules committee legalized the forward pass instead. Though it was underutilized for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.

As a result of the — reforms, mass formation plays became illegal and forward passes legal. Other important changes, formally adopted in , were the requirements that at least seven offensive players be on the line of scrimmage at the time of the snap, that there be no pushing or pulling, and that interlocking interference arms linked or hands on belts and uniforms was not allowed.

These changes greatly reduced the potential for collision injuries. Amos Alonzo Stagg introduced such innovations as the huddle , the tackling dummy, and the pre-snap shift.

Besides these coaching innovations, several rules changes during the first third of the 20th century had a profound impact on the game, mostly in opening up the passing game.

In , the first roughing-the-passer penalty was implemented. In , the rules on eligible receivers were loosened to allow eligible players to catch the ball anywhere on the field—previously strict rules were in place allowing passes to only certain areas of the field.

Star players that emerged in the early 20th century include Jim Thorpe , Red Grange , and Bronko Nagurski ; these three made the transition to the fledgling NFL and helped turn it into a successful league.

In at Champaign, Illinois Chicago and Illinois played in the first game to have a halftime show featuring a marching band.

On November 25, Kansas and Missouri played the first homecoming football game. The game between West Virginia and Pittsburgh on October 8, , saw the first live radio broadcast of a college football game when Harold W.

Princeton won 21—18 in a hotly contested game which had Princeton dubbed the "Team of Destiny. The following season saw Vanderbilt execute a double pass play to set up the touchdown that beat Sewanee in a meeting of unbeatens for the SIAA championship.

Grantland Rice cited this event as the greatest thrill he ever witnessed in his years of watching sports. First, Vanderbilt; second, Sewanee, a might good second;" and that Aubrey Lanier "came near winning the Vanderbilt game by his brilliant dashes after receiving punts.

Honus Craig then ran in the winning touchdown. The team was the first national champion from the South , led by a powerful backfield. When Heisman left Tech after , his shift was still employed by protege William Alexander.

In , Vanderbilt defeated Carlisle 4 to 0, the result of a Bob Blake field goal. In Vanderbilt held defending national champion Yale to a scoreless tie.

The next season, with many players gone due to World War I, a game was finally scheduled at Forbes Field with Pittsburgh.

In Bo McMillin -led Centre upset defending national champion Harvard 6 to 0 in what is widely considered one of the greatest upsets in college football history.

The next year Vanderbilt fought Michigan to a scoreless tie at the inaugural game at Dudley Field now Vanderbilt Stadium , the first stadium in the South made exclusively for college football.

Michigan coach Fielding Yost and Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin were brothers-in-law, and the latter the protege of the former.

Its result was "a great surprise to the sporting world. This game is commonly referred to as "the game that changed the south. Georgia Tech, led by Heisman protege William Alexander , gave the dream and wonder team its only loss, and the next year were national and Rose Bowl champions.

As part of his single and double wing formations, Warner was one of the first coaches to effectively utilize the forward pass. Among his other innovations are modern blocking schemes, the three-point stance , and the reverse play.

Knute Rockne rose to prominence in as an end for the University of Notre Dame , then a largely unknown Midwestern Catholic school. When Army scheduled Notre Dame as a warm-up game, they thought little of the small school.

Rockne and quarterback Gus Dorais made innovative use of the forward pass, still at that point a relatively unused weapon, to defeat Army 35—13 and helped establish the school as a national power.

He is credited with being the first major coach to emphasize offense over defense. Rockne is also credited with popularizing and perfecting the forward pass, a seldom used play at the time.

In , his complex shifts led directly to a rule change whereby all offensive players had to stop for a full second before the ball could be snapped.

He led his team to an impressive —12—5 record before his premature death in a plane crash in He was so famous at that point that his funeral was broadcast nationally on radio.

Although before the mids most national powers came from the Northeast or the Midwest , the trend changed when several teams from the South and the West Coast achieved national success.

College football quickly became the most popular spectator sport in the South. Several major modern college football conferences rose to prominence during this time period.

The Southwest Athletic Conference had been founded in As it grew beyond its regional affiliations in the s, college football garnered increased national attention.

Four new bowl games were created: In lieu of an actual national championship, these bowl games, along with the earlier Rose Bowl, provided a way to match up teams from distant regions of the country that did not otherwise play.

Since there was no national championship game, the final version of the AP poll was used to determine who was crowned the National Champion of college football.

The s saw growth in the passing game. In , the rules committee removed two major penalties—a loss of five yards for a second incomplete pass in any series of downs and a loss of possession for an incomplete pass in the end zone—and shrunk the circumference of the ball, making it easier to grip and throw.

During World War II, college football players enlisted in the armed forces , some playing in Europe during the war. As most of these players had eligibility left on their college careers, some of them returned to college at West Point , bringing Army back-to-back national titles in and under coach Red Blaik.

Doc Blanchard known as "Mr. Inside" and Glenn Davis known as "Mr. Outside" both won the Heisman Trophy , in and The s saw the rise of yet more dynasties and power programs.

Oklahoma , under coach Bud Wilkinson , won three national titles , , and all ten Big Eight Conference championships in the decade while building a record game winning streak.

The Michigan State Spartans were known as the "football factory" during the s, where coaches Clarence Munn and Duffy Daugherty led the Spartans to two national titles and two Big Ten titles after joining the Big Ten athletically in

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